Field hockey is also known as hockey. It’s an outdoor game that two opposing teams of 11 people play. They use sticks with curved ends to strike a small, hard ball into the opponent’s goal. Field hockey is used to distinguish it from ice hockey.
Field hockey is thought to have originated in the earliest human civilizations. Each version was different for the Arabs, Greeks and Persians. There are also traces of a stick-game played by the Aztec Indians from South America. Other early games such as hurling or shinty can be also identified with hockey. The Middle Ages saw the introduction of a French stick game called Hoquet. It was also used as the basis for the English word .
In the late 19th century, hockey was introduced to English schools. The first men’s club for hockey, at Blackheath in southeast London recorded a minute record in 1861. Teddington was another London club that introduced many major changes, including the ban on using hands or lifting sticks higher than the shoulder, the replacement and use of the rubber cube with a sphere for the ball, as well as the adoption of a striking circle which was included in the rules of the new Hockey Association of London, established in 1886.
The spread of the game was largely due to the British army, especially in India or the Far East. In 1895, international competition was established. In 1928, hockey was India’s national sport. The Indian team won the Olympic Games gold medal that year without conceding any goal in five matches.
This was the beginning of India’s dominance of the sport. It ended with the advent of Pakistan late in the 1940s. 1971 saw the introduction of the World Cup. The Asian Cup and Asian Games are other major international tournaments. In the Olympic Games, men’s field hockey was added in 1908 and 1920, and later permanently in 1928. Indoor hockey is a sport that involves six players and six substitutes. It has been very popular in Europe.
Despite restrictions on sport for women during the Victorian era hockey became more popular among women. While women’s Field hockey has been played since 1895 in friendly matches, international competition for serious games began only in the 1970s. In 1974, the first Women’s World Cup took place. In 1980, women’s hockey was made an Olympic sport. In 1927, the International Federation of Women’s Hockey Associations was established as an international governing body. Constance M.K. introduced the game to the United States on January 1, 1901. Applebee and field hockey became popular outdoor sports among women in the United States. They were played in schools, colleges and clubs.
Two teams of eleven players play the game on a rectangular field. It measures 100 yards (91.4 meters) in length and is 60 yards (55m) wide. The center line is marked and there are two 25-yard lines. The goal posts are approximately 4 yards (3.66m) in width and 7 feet (2.13m) high. A goal, which counts for one point, must be placed in the goal.
The ball must also have been touched within the shooting circle of an attacker. Although the original cricket balls were made of cork, string-wound and covered with leather, plastic balls are now approved. It measures 9 inches (23cm) in diameter. It is typically 36 to 38 inches long (about 1 meter) in circumference and weighs between 12 to 28 ounces (340 to 790g). To strike the ball, you can only use the flat left side.
A team’s normal structure is five forwards and three halfbacks. Two fullbacks and a goalkeeper. Each half lasts 35 minutes, with a 5-10 minute intermission. Only in the event of injury is a time-out called. The goalkeeper must wear thick, lightweight pads. While in the shooting circle, he or she may kick or stop the ball with their feet or bodies. The stick is the only weapon that can stop the ball from any other players.
Play is initiated (and re-started) when a goal is scored or half-time has elapsed. This is done by a pass back in the middle of the field. The face-off (or bully) is used to restart play after an injury, equipment time-out or when the ball gets trapped in a player’s clothing. Two players from each team face off with the ball on their heads. Each player attempts to strike the ball by tapping alternately on the ground and his opponent’s stick. In the event that the ball is lost on the field, there are several ways to put it back into play.
The rules of basic field hockey
- Hockey players cannot hit the ball with their flat stick.
- Other than the goalkeeper, hockey players are forbidden from using their feet or any other part of their bodies to control the ball.
- Only a field goal, penalty corner or penalty stroke can score a goal. A field goal can only be scored in open play and must be scored within the “striking circle”, which is located directly in front of the opponent’s goal. It does not count if the hockey ball hits outside the circle but goes in the goal.
- Hockey players are prohibited from pushing, charging, causing injury, or physically handling an opponent. Hockey is a contact sport. All fouls are subject to a penalty corner or free hit for the team that did not commit the offense.
Foul play in field hockey
There are many different kinds of fouls that can be committed in hockey. These are the most important ones to be aware of.
- Obstruction. This refers to a hockey player who prevents an opponent from obtaining the ball with their stick or body.
- Third-party obstruction. This award is given to a hockey player who positions themselves between an opponent and the ball, giving their team-mate unobstructed access to the ball.
- Advancing. This award is given to a player who pushes, shoves, or advances a ball in any way using any part of their body.
- Backsticks. This award is given to a player who hits the puck with the back end of the hockey stick.
- Hockey stick interference. This refers to a player who intentionally hits their opponent’s stick with their hockey stick.
- Undercutting. This award is given to a player who lifts a ball in a dangerous way.
- Sticks. This award is given to a player who raises his stick in a dangerous way towards another player.
Different types of punishments in field hockey
There are three ways to punish a foul in a hockey match. These are:
- No hit. This award is for any offense that takes place outside the scoring circle. This usually occurs at the spot of the violation. The hit must be at least five yards (5m) away from the location of the violation.
- Penalty corner. The attacking team is granted a penalty corner if the defense commits a foul within the striking circle or intentionally hits a ball out-ofbounds over the line. An attacking player takes a penalty corner at a spot on 10 yard (9.2m) from the nearest goalpost. The attacking player must remain outside the striking circle. Five defenders including the goalkeeper stand behind the line until the ball touches the ground. All players are free to run into the circle once the ball is in play.
- Penalty stroke. If the defending side commits an offense that is almost certain to result in a goal, the penalty is given to the attacking team. The penalty is taken seven yards (6.4m), with the goalkeeper as the only opponent.
Field hockey umpires
Two umpires are responsible for the management of each side of the pitch. Any player who violates the rules by misconduct or rough play can be given a card. It can be either yellow, green or red.
- Green. This is an official warning to hockey players not to break the rules.
- Yellow. After an offense, a hockey player is sent off the pitch for five minutes.
- Red. Red.
For more interesting blogs , news and articles click @ www.rahulwebstories.com